Candida Albicans In Men Definition, Characteristics Of The Pathogen And Its Treatment
Candida (Candida albicans) – microorganisms from the same genus of yeast-like fungi. Usually found in the natural microflora of a healthy person (oral cavity, esophagus, large intestine, vagina). As a result of this, they cannot be ranked as true infectious pathogens, therefore candidiasis belongs to opportunistic infections, and the fungus itself belongs to opportunistic pathogens.
Often observed in women of reproductive age, urogenital candidiasis can affect men who have sex with patients. In this case, the clinical manifestations of the disease are favored by special circumstances (immunodeficiency, prolonged treatment with antibiotics, and others).
Pathogen characteristics and risk factors
Yeast is a type of unicellular mushroom that lives in liquid media. Candida is also distinguished by its tropism for tissues containing a large amount of animal starch – glycogen, and in this regard, overwhelmingly often affect the mucous membrane of the female vagina. In addition to Candida albicans, the disease is caused by a number of other microorganisms of the same genus, normally also capable of being human endosymbionts. But their role as pathogens is negligible compared to the first (5-10% of the total number of cases). They, as a rule, join on the background of severe dysfunction of the natural microflora with the recurrent nature of the disease.
Risk factors for developing infection in men are relative. As a rule, this is a general weakening of the body against the background of pronounced immunosuppression:
- HIV infection;
- condition after transplant surgery with the use of immunosuppressants;
- inhibition of the activity of protective microflora by massive doses of antibiotics;
- a high concentration of the pathogen in the partner’s genital tract.
It should be noted that candida does not apply to sexually transmitted infections by current clinical guidelines, however, it is the main one in the transmission of the pathogen of urogenital candidiasis.
The clinical picture in men
The disease manifests itself in the form of candidal balanoposthitis – inflammation of the skin of the glans penis and foreskin. Sometimes the pathological process can capture the adjacent parts of the urethra. Classical signs of pathology consist of the following subjective and objective symptoms:
- swelling, redness of the glans penis;
- rashes on the skin of the head and foreskin, with a plentiful discharge of a characteristic “curd-white” color;
- vesicles, painful ulcerations on the skin of prepuce (foreskin), also, with white discharge;
- general discomfort, pulling sensation in the genital area;
- burning and itching during urination and at rest;
- pain during intercourse (mechanical irritation of inflamed areas).
In severe cases, candidiasis can affect larger areas of the skin of the inguinal region and perineum; spreading upward, cause inflammation of the genitourinary tract.
Three main methods are used, each of which is used when the previous one is not sufficiently informative: microscopy of stained preparations (smear), culture inoculation study (including a test for sensitivity to antifungal drugs), and molecular biological (PCR). The latter is indicated for determining the type of pathogenic yeast, since among them there are resistant to antimycotic agents.
Treatment and prevention
Local and oral use of antifungal drugs is indicated. A cream of 2% natamycin and clotrimazole is used. Inside, take fluconazole or itraconazole.
As preventive measures, it is necessary to avoid sexual intercourse until the partner is completely cured if she has signs of the disease. If they are absent, but the man has candidal balanoposthitis, then after treatment, condoms should be used until the cause of its occurrence is determined. Also, both partners should be treated. One of the preventive measures are combined courses of antimycotic drugs along with antibiotics in the treatment of specific genital infections.